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Solutions from the Grass Roots.

Burning oil is the Problem.

Burning petroleum is responsible for 82% of the CO2 that is fouling our atmosphere and causing global warming.[a] So, what can we do about that?
We can use less gasoline, diesel fuel, coal, gas and aviation fuel, and perhaps cause the oil companies to reconsider their business model.
The oil companies are required to drill for oil and sell petroleum products. It’s in their corporate bylaws. So how do 229 million climate-conscious people in the U.S. [b]  [c] (and 6 billion climate-conscious people in the world) [d] cause them to consider branching out into renewable energy?
We burn a lot less petroleum.
You say, “But I need gas to get to work and to shop! I have to fly to Duluth! They have us by the throat!”   OK.
For starters, anyone that can, trade in your second car and buy an electric car. Electric cars work great for short hops to work and shopping around town. Make a deal with a solar outfit to put solar panels on your roof, charge your car at home and drive around for free! [e] [f] [g]
We promote and vote on city council members who take an oath to retrofit the diesel engines in our cities’ buses with electric motors. Or just retire the old ones and buy new electric buses. We use solar power to charge banks of batteries that charge the buses at night. Free, non-polluting power. There are 140,000 transit vehicles in the U.S. At the state level, we do it with ballot propositions. [h]
We do the same with all school buses. (480,000 vehicles!) This is the biggest transportation system in the U.S. Each state passes a proposition that mandates this. [i]
We elect a president who issues an executive order that all Post Office trucks and minivans must be electric.[j] [k] Every Post Office must have solar charging stations. The P.O. saves big money on fuel and – no pollution from 213,000 vehicles. The fuel savings winds up paying for the new minivans.
We expose and censure the Congressmen and Senators who take inordinate amounts of money from the fossil fuel industry, and then, to a man, deny global warming and vote against all climate measures. This is barefaced quid pro quo. They either change their ways (not likely), or we vote them out. [l]
We petition Congress to stop subsidizing the oil companies, except for the Low Income Home Energy Assistance Program. We require a vote. We take note of who the intransigient congresspeople are. We then vote them out. [m]
We vote on Congresspeople that will subsidize airlines that buy and fly hydrogen-fueled airplanes. [n] We tax the airlines that use ordinary jet fuel. There is no problem powering an airplane with hydrogen. [o]  [p] The fuel plus the tank weigh 1/3 less than jet fuel. We easily produce the hydrogen using solar arrays at each airport.[q] Low-cost non-polluting fuel. The airlines will love it. Liz Cheney will hate it.[r]
We publish a list of the household products the petrochemical companies make, and we buy the alternative products that are not made by the petrochemical companies. These are things like Dixie cups and Brawny paper towels.[s]
We tax, or outlaw, household plastic products that are made from petrochemicals. We give a tax break to plastic products that are made from plants and are biodegradable. [t]
People that own a roof, check with a solar installation outfit about installing renewable energy on it. This is a win-win. You save money, and you produce clean energy.
The big one. Build solar farms to replace gas- and coal-fired power plants. The energy solar farms produce is now cheap and getting cheaper, but also: it's clean.  [u]

Anything else you can think of that will cause the petrochemical companies to think about changing their business plan. In a (Texas) minute they could start producing renewable energy, by following the lead of T. Boone Pickens, who saw the potential of wind energy and the transition to renewables 30 years ago.



These are the latest figures available (from 2016) since Trump and Pruitt et. al. took over the EPA.
The combustion of fossil fuels to generate electricity was the largest single source of CO2 emissions in the nation, accounting for about 34 % of total U.S. CO2 emissions.
The combustion of fossil fuels for transportation is the second largest source of CO2 emissions, accounting for about 33 % of total U.S. CO2 emissions.
Fossil fuel combustion from various industrial processes accounted for about 15 %  of U.S.
Total:   82% of the CO2 in the atmosphere is continually being put up there by the burning of fossil fuels.


70 Percent Believe Global Warming Is Happening
Yale Program on Climate Change Communication, percentage of people believing in global warming vs region map
With a few exceptions, most regions of the country are in relative agreement that the planet is warming. In general, fewer people agree with this statement in the middle of the country than the coasts, but compared to other topics, most of the U.S. is in agreement that the climate is changing.

Of those polled, 71 percent said they somewhat or strongly trust climate scientists and their findings on global warming.


Record 65% Blame Human Activity for Rising Temperatures
...another record broken in the new poll -- the 65% of Americans now saying increases in the Earth's temperature over the last century are primarily attributable to human activities rather than natural causes. This represents a striking 10-percentage-point increase in the past year and is four points above the previous high of 61% in 2007.


Majorities in all 40 nations polled say climate change is a serious problem, and a global median of 54% believe it is a very serious problem.
Climate change is not seen as a distant threat. A global median of 51% say climate change is already harming people around the world, while another 28% believe it will do so in the next few years. Total: 79 %. This view is especially common in Latin America. For instance, fully 90% of Brazilians say climate change is harming people now. Europeans are also particularly likely to hold this opinion.
Most people in the countries we surveyed say rich nations should do more than developing nations to address climate change.

Pew Research Center: What the world thinks about climate change in 7 charts


A gallon of gasoline releases 14 lbs of CO2 when burned. A car that averages 20 miles per gallon and is driven a typical 15,000 miles per year will burn 750 gallons, emitting a little over 5 tons of CO2.
An industry analyst has calculated that the total vehicle number in the world is 1.2 billion. That’s 6 billion tons of CO2 per year dumped into the planet’s atmosphere by the world’s fossil-fueled vehicles.
I mean.........DAMN!


BMW i8 phev

Audi E-Tron Sportback, A8 L E-Tron, Q2 L E-Tron
Aston Martin Rapid E
BMW i8 Roadster

21 more including e.GO, Honda, Land Rover, Maserati, Nissan, Porsche, Tesla, Toyota, Volvo, Yudo. Prices starting at $23,750.

2019 List of U.S.-available Electric Cars with price list
30 Reasons Your Next Car Should Be Electric


Zero S

In many ways, Zero is the Tesla of the electric motorcycle industry. Named S, its entry-level model is an urban bike that’s nimble and practical.
In its top configuration, the Zero S offers 60 hp, 81 lb-ft, and up to 153 miles of range when it’s ridden in a mix of city and highway conditions. Pricing varies between $10,995 and $16,690. The Australian Super Soco starts at $5000.

Electric Motorcycles


Minneapolis is already doing this.
And Seattle, Chicago, San Francisco, Dallas, Louisville, and plenty of other cities. Statwide in California.

Electric transit buses

America’s largest cities are converting their bus fleets from fossil fuel to electric – what’s behind this accelerating trend? The answer, in a word: economics. Electric buses represent billions in potential savings for cash-strapped local governments. (Do we care that the reason isn't to save the planet? Nope.)

California transitioning to all-electric public bus fleet.


Electric school bus

More and more electric buses are charging into school districts across North America—thanks to funding programs and the buses’ clean operation.

Zero emission school buses are attracting strong interest from school districts because they make the planet cleaner and provide healthier air for children, whose developing lungs are especially vulnerable to vehicle emissions.

Electric buses charge into school districts
School Buses: America's Largest Transit System


Post Office big rigs need replacement.
Tesla Semi
Tesla is expected to start delivering a handful of electric long-haul trucks by 2020, with companies such as Daimler, Volvo and Peterbuilt following close behind.
“The big news on electrification is how much more feasible it’s gotten with Daimler and Tesla introducing some electric truck options that seem like they can do the job,” said Ethan Elkind, a researcher at UC Berkeley’s Center for Law, Energy and the Environment who has been studying the issue closely.

Rethinking Tractor Trailers for the Long Haul


This is a disgrace.
Volvo electric
Ford made 200 of these electric minivans in 2000. The battery maker quit, so the P.O. "exchanged" them back to gas, rather than finding another battery maker.

Since then, the post office has been consistently dragging its feet. They have a measly 30 EV's in service in New York, with a sprinkling of "experiments" around the country. I mean, come on!

There are a lot of firms willing to make new P.O. minivans. There are also plenty of companies ready to retrofit the existing minivans. The Post Office does nothing.

New minivans could cost around $35,000 apiece. Retrofitted minivans could cost $10 to $20,000 each.

It would cost between $1.4 and $2.8 billion to convert the P.O. minivans to EV’s. If that happened, the projected ten-year savings over a gas minivan fleet ranges from $2.4 billion to $5 billion.

At $35K new minivans would cost $4.9 billion. Savings $5 billion. Just saying.

Should the P.O. go electric?   Article from 2012 with antiquated battery-cost figures.


As of October 2017, Oil Change International estimates United States fossil fuel exploration and production subsidies at $20.5 billion annually. Other credible estimates of annual United States fossil fuel subsidies range from $10 billion to $52 billion annually – yet none of these include costs borne by taxpayers related to the climate, local environmental, and health impacts of the fossil fuel industry.
According to International Energy Agency (IEA), energy subsidies artificially lower the price of energy paid by consumers, raise the price received by producers or lower the cost of production. Fossil fuels subsidies costs generally outweigh the benefits.
A 2017 study by researchers at Stockholm Environment Institute published in the journal Nature Energy estimated that nearly half of U.S. oil production would be unprofitable without subsidies. [34]


Hydrogen powere flight by Russia
I know, we distrust the oligarchs, but the Russians flew a hydrogen-powered airplane for more than 100 flights with no problems. It was put into storage because of the fall of the Soviet Union.


Their vision is: To achieve long term continuing growth of civil aviation until every man and woman on earth can fly as often and as far as they want, and when doing so, do no harm to other human beings , or to the environment.
Sounds pretty lofty, but check out what they were doing in 2001.

A British outfit, "Reaction Engines Limited", currently has a hydrogen-fueled aircraft called


Safety General Aspects
Safety General Aspects


Solar Panels
Solar Panels can produce hydrogen on airport real estate.


A more inclusive list is coming.


Garbage Patch
The great garbage patches.

The raw material for all packaging plastics (right now) is ethylene. Ethylene is a gas derived from natural gas or from a fraction of crude oil that has a composition similar to natural gas.

Naturally, Exxon Mobil is a Top 3 Plastics producer.

Producing and refining ethylene uses a lot of energy, which is generated by burning feedstock of natural gas or crude oil.

Producing a 16 oz. PET (plastic) bottle generates more than 100 times the toxic emissions to air and water than making the same size bottle out of glass.
Polymer Properties Database


Abu Dubai
Solar Array, Abu Dubai. 4 Square miles of panels - 1.18 Gigawatts.

A (large) gas-fired 650 MW powerplant costs appr. $600 million to build. Then the plant has to purchase fuel, so it is literally burning money over the life of the plant. And polluting the atmosphere all the while.

Whereas, the solar farm in Abu Dabi (above) is costing $870 million, will put out almost twice the power – 1.18 Gigawatts – and will have no fuel costs. And will not pollute, will not require subsidies, and will produce power at 2.42 ¢ per Kwh.

We can do this easily in the U.S. because, it turns out, in 2018 the solar industry had entered a phase of oversupply, which means solar panels can be purchased in international markets for $0.22 per watt, "an incredibly low price for solar products," according to the website EnergyTrend.

The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) says that "renewables are now the cheapest energy source." (2018)

The climate denialists will reflexively yell, "Aha! But what about at night, huh? The sun doesn't shine at night!"  Just shut up.

●Hydrogen Energy Storage
● Carbon-Enhanced Lead-Acid Battery Storage
●Sodium-Beta Battery Storage
● Vanadium Redox Battery Storage
● Grid-Scale Energy Storage Demo Using Ultra Battery Technology
● Grid-Scale Flywheel Energy Storage Plant
● Isothermal Compressed Air Energy Storage
● Sodium-ion Battery for Grid-level Applications
●Pumped Hydro-Power

Solar panels are cheap now.
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